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    Spelling Rules

    Spelling Rules

    There are few Spelling Rules which should be followed in the formation of words.

    1. For the one-syllable words ending in single vowel + single consonant, double the consonant before a suffix beginning with vowel.
    (*Syllable meaning : a unit of pronunciation having one vowel sound, with or without surrounding consonants, forming the whole or a part of a word; for example, there are two syllables in water and three in inferno.)

    Examples:

    • beg + ed = begged
    • run + ed =running
    • rob + er = robber
    • sad + est =saddest

    but…

    • wish + ed = wished (two consonants)
    • fear + ing = fearing ( two vowels)

    2. For the words of two or three syllables ending in single vowel + single consonant, double the final consonant if the last syllable is stressed.

    Examples:

    • Begin + ing =beginning
    • Permit +ed =permitted
    • Occur +ed =occurred
    • Control + er =controller

    There are more Spelling Rules that follow.

    3. The consonant is not doubled if the last syllable is not stressed.

    Examples:

    • Benefit +ed = benefited
    • Suffer + ing =suffering

    Exceptions:

    • Worship +ed =worshipped
    • Handicap +ed =handicapped
    • Kidnap +er =kidnapper

    4. The consonant ‘l’ is doubled, even if the stress does not fall on the last syllable.

    Examples:

    • Quarrel + ed =quarreled
    • Signal + ing = signalling
    • Travel + er =traveller
    • Distil + er =distiller

    5. If the word to which suffix ‘ful’ is added ends in‘ll’, the second ‘l’ is dropped.

    Examples:

    • Skill + ful =skilful
    • Will + full =willful

    There are more Spelling Rules that follow.

    6. For words ending in silent ‘e’, drop the ‘e’ before a suffix beginning with a vowel.

    Examples:

    • Live + ing =living
    • Move + ing =moving
    • Drive + ing =driving
    • Hope + ing =hoping

    NOTE:

    The ‘e’ remains before a suffix beginning with a consonant.

    Examples:

    • Hope + ful =hopeful
    • Engage +ment =engagement

    Exceptions:

    • True + ly +truly
    • Whole +ly =wholly
    • Due + ly = duly
    • Nine + th =ninth
    • Awe + ful =awful
    • Argue +ment =argument

    7. Notice the special case of words ending in ‘ce’ and ‘ge’ which keep the ‘e’ when adding ‘able’ and ‘ous’.

    Examples:

    • Notice +able =noticeable
    • Peace +able =peaceful
    • Change +able =changeable
    • Courage + ous =courageous

    8. Words ending in ‘ee’ do not drop an ‘e’ before a suffix.

    Examples:

    • See + ing =seeing
    • Agree + ment =agreement

    9. Words ending in ‘ie’ change the ‘ie’ to ‘y’ when ‘ing’ is added.

    Examples:

    • Die + ing =dying
    • Tie + ing =tying
    • Lie + ing =lying

    There are more Spelling Rules that follow.

    10. A final ‘y’ following a consonant changes to ‘i’ before a suffix except ‘ing’.

    Examples:

    • Happy + ly = happily
    • Beauty + ful =beautiful
    • Carry + ed = carried
    • Marry + ed =married
    • Marry +age =marriage
    • Carry +ing =carrying
    • Marry +ing =marrying

    NOTE:

    But, ‘y’ following a vowel does not change.

    • Pray + ed =prayed
    • Play +er =player

    Exceptions:

    • Pay +ed =paid
    • Say +ed =said
    • Lay + ed =laid
    • Day + ly =daily
    • Gay +ly =gaily

    11. When ‘ie’ or ‘ei’ is pronounced like ‘ee’ in jeep, ‘i’ comes before ‘e’ except after ‘c’.

    Examples:

    • Believe
    • Relieve
    • Achieve
    • Grieve
    • Yield
    • Field

    • Receive
    • Receipt
    • Deceive
    • Deceit
    • Conceive
    • Conceit

    Exceptions:

    • Seize
    • Weird
    • Protein
    • Surfeit
    • Counterfeit
    • Plebeian

    These are the Spelling Rules which determine the formation of words of different kinds.

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